Framework for Inexpensive Off Grid Aux Electrical

I am a bit confused. Don't most 18650s come without terminal studs? If so, how do you attach the studs without spot welding?
Terminals are simply pressed and held against the conductive surface. Held there by friction of that plastic cap.
Its a clever thing. Support the cells, spaced to help cooling. Hope they maintain good contact !
Being there is nothing holding the caps front to back, I'd be seriously concerned that vibration would allow those things to separate from the batteries causing loss of contact. They do not look robust at all.


Tail-End Charlie